# 计算机入门 作业笔记（1）

## 计算机入门 作业笔记（1）

Contents

### Bonus Problem

resource: Glenn Brookshear_ Dennis Brylow-Computer Science – An Overview-Pearson Education Limited (2015) P134 T24

24. A game that used to be popular among computer hobbyists is core wars—a variation of battleship. (The term core originates from an early memory technology in which 0s and 1s were represented as magnetic fields in little rings of magnetic material. The rings were called cores.) The game is played between two opposing programs, each stored in different locations of the same computer’s memory. The computer is assumed to alternate between the two programs, executing an instruction from one followed by an instruction from the other. The goal of each program is to cause the other to malfunction by writing extraneous data on top of it; however, neither program knows the location of the other.

a. Write a program in the machine language of Appendix C that approaches the game in a defensive manner by being as small as possible.

b. Write a program in the language of Appendix C that tries to avoid any attacks from the
opposing program by moving to different locations. More precisely, beginning at location 00, write a program that will copy itself to location 70 and then jump to location 70.

c. Extend the program in (b) to continue relocating to new memory locations. In particular, make your program move to location 70, then to E0 (= 70 + 70) then to 60 (= 70 + 70 + 70) etc.

### Appendix C

#### A Simple Machine Language

In this appendix we present a simple but representative machine language. We begin by explaining the architecture of the machine itself.

#### The Machine’s Architecture

The machine has 16 general-purpose registers numbered 0 through F (in hexadecimal). Each register is one byte (eight bits) long. For identifying registers within instructions, each register is assigned the unique four-bit pattern that represents its register number. Thus register 0 is identified by 0000 (hexadecimal 0), and register 4 is identified by 0100 (hexadecimal 4). There are 256 cells in the machine’s main memory. Each cell is assigned a unique address consisting of an integer in the range of 0 to 255. An address can therefore be represented by a pattern of eight bits ranging from 00000000 to 11111111 (or a hexadecimal value in the range of 00 to FF). Floating-point values are assumed to be stored in an eight-bit format discussed in Section 1.7 and summarized in Figure 1.24.

#### The Machine’s Language

Each machine instruction is two bytes long. The first 4 bits provide the op-code; the last 12 bits make up the operand field. The table that follows lists the instructions in hexadecimal notation together with a short description of each. The letters R, S, and T are used in place of hexadecimal digits in those fields representing a register identifier that varies depending on the particular application of the instruction. The letters X and Y are used in lieu of hexadecimal digits in variable fields not representing a register.

Blank space for thinking.

### My Solution


Main Memory

0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   A   B   C   D   E   F
0 26  03  21  00  24  01  22  70  25  70  31  0D  13  00  2F  00
1 88  16  2F  00  20  03  B8  1C  2F  00  B0  1E  53  35  32  21
2 33  00  2F  00  51  14  2F  00  52  24  20  34  2F  00  B1  70
3 2F  00  B0  0A  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
4 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
5 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
6 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
7 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
8 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
9 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
A 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
B 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
C 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
D 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
E 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00
F 00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00  00

R0:00  R1:00  R2:00  R3:00  R4:00  R5:00  R6:00  R7:00     PC: 00
R8:00  R9:00  RA:00  RB:00  RC:00  RD:00  RE:00  RF:00     IR: 0000