词汇学（7）Word formation Ⅳ Conversion
Conversion is the formation of new words by converting words of one class to another class, i.e. by turning words of one part of speech to those of another part of the speech in traditional terms. New words are new only in a grammatical sense. Since the words that are made to do not change in morphological structure but in function, this process is also known as functional shift.
round in the following sentences
He was knocked out in the first round.
Round the number off to the nearest tenth.
The neighbours gathered round our barbecue.
The moon was bright and round.
People came from all the country round.
Conversion is geenerally considered to be a derivational process whereby an item is adapted or converted to a new word class without the addition of ana affix. Hence the name zero-derivation.
E.g. simple single
Single could be used as a verb. In contrast, simple cannot be used as a verb without adding an affix. The first instance is one of zero-derivation-conversion, the sencond is one of suffixation as suffix -ify is added to make simple a verb.
Words produced by conversion are mainly nouns, adjectives and verbs. It deserves noting that conversion is not only a change of grammatical function ofthe item invovled but with it the different range ofmeaning it originally carried.
Conversion to Nouns
Almost all monomorphemic verbs can be used as nouns, which are semantically related to the original verbs in various ways.
|State (of ming or sensation)|
|doubt||the state of doubting|
|want||what is wanted|
|desire, love, hate, smell, taste|
|Event or activity|
|search||the activity of searching|
|laugh||the act of laughing|
|attemp, hit, release, swim, shut-down, teach-in|
|Result in the action|
|catch||what is caught|
|find||what is found|
|reject, buy, answer, bet, hand-out|
|Doer of the action|
|help||one who helps|
|cheat||one who cheats|
|bore, coach, flirt, scold, stand-in|
|Tool or instrument to do the action with|
|cover||usedto cover something|
|wrap||used to wrap something|
|cure, paper, wrench|
|Place of the action|
|pass||whrere one has to pass|
|walk||a place for walking|
|divide, turn, drive, retreat, lay-by|
A noun fully converted from an adjective has all the characteristics of nouns. It can take an indefinite article or -(e)s to indicate singular or plural number.
E.g. a white, a crazy, angies, valuables, finals
Nouns partially converted from adjectives do not possess all the qualities of nouns. They must be used together with definite articles as nouns while retaining some of the adjective features. The gradable adjectives can keep their comparative or superlative degrees.
E.g. the poor, the poorer, the most corrupt, the young
This conversion nouns converted from other classes rather than verbs and adjectives auch as conjuntions, modals, finite verbs, prepositions.
Would you like a with or a without.
Better to be an also-ran than a never-was.
His argument contains too many ifs and buts.
Life is full of ups and downs.
Rubber gloves are a must.
Patriotisms, nationalisms, and any other isms.
Conversion to Verbs
As is often the ease, a noun can be converted to a verb without any change. The use of the verb converted is both economical and vivid.
|To put in or on N|
|to pocket the money||to put the money into the pocket|
|to can the fruit||to put the fruit in the can|
|bottle, garage, corner, shelve|
|To give N or to provide with N|
|to shelter the refugee||to give a shelter to the refugee|
|to oil the machine||to provide the machine with oil|
|butter, fuel, grease, arm, finance, coat|
|To remove N from|
|to skin the lab||to remove the skin from the lab|
|to juice the orange||to remove the juice from the orange|
|core, peel, feather, gut|
|To do with N|
|to pump water||to bring water with a pump|
|to knife the steak||to cut the steak with a knife|
|brake, fiddle, finger, hammer, shoulder, glue|
|To be or act as N|
|to nurse a baby||to be the nurse for the baby|
|to capatain a team||to act as a captain for the team|
|father, parrot, pilot, refree, tutor|
|To make or change into N|
|to cash the chesque||to change the chesque into cash|
|to orphan the boy||to make the boy an orphan|
|cripple, fool, knight, widow|
|To send or go by N|
|to mail the letter||to send the letter by mail|
|to bicycle||to go by bicycle|
|helicopter, ship, telegraph, boat, motor|
He walked carefully so as not to wet his shoes.
The play was over and the auditorium began to empty.
Boon got in and quieted the engine.
The interlectuals are muchea again.
We downed a few beers.
The students tut-tut the idea.
But me no buts.
Conversion to Adjectives
Generally, mass and material nouns can be used as adjectives. Some nouns are used simply to replace the derived adjectives from the same word. There is no much difference between the noun-form adjective and the adjective as far as meaning is concerned.
Changes Invovled in Conversion
Changes from Voiceless to Voice Consonant
|house /-s/||house /-z/|
|shelf /f/||shelve /-v/|
|sheath /-θ/||sheath /-ð/|
Changes from Initial to End Stress
|bath /a:θ/||bathe /eið/|